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With a Surging Domestic Gas Market, Ghana Defies the Sceptics

With 2020 consumption in excess of 315Million standard cubic feet per day (320MMscf/d), Ghana’s domestic gas market is growing faster than was assumed by energy experts, (mostly non-Ghanaian), just three years ago.

In 2018, it wasn’t so clear if Ghana could absorb, by 2020, the entire peak gas supply (180MMscf/d) prognosed to come from the (then) newly commissioned Sankofa field, operated by ENI.

But 165MMscf/d of Sankofa field production is already accounted for in the 2020 consumption, with Nigerian gas (coming from the West Africa Gas Pipeline) delivering over 65MMsf/d, in 2020, a figure that is still short of the contracted 123MMscf/d but is at least growing. Gas from Tullow Oil operated Jubilee field and TEN clusters of fields accounted for the rest:  around 85MMscf/d.

Ghana’s gas consumption increased from 115MMsscf/d in 2017 to 315MMscf/d in 2020.

“Gas demand in Ghana will be driven by the rise in electricity generation”, says Mike Fulwood, a senior research fellow at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OEIS). “Based on a 45% increase by 2026, this would see a rise in gas demand from the 2020 level” of around 310MMscf/d to some 455MMsf/d. Fullwood says that the power plants in the Takoradi area (in Ghana’s western region) operated at a higher utilization rate in 2020 than those in the Tema area (a port town close to Accra in the east), at around 52% to 41% – for those plants fully operational. “Some of the older plants in the Takoradi area have had operational issues but the newer ones, including the Karpowership, are operating at high utilization rates and are very much baseload plants. “Over time we assume that the utilization of the Takoradi plants rises to some 60% but that any new power generation capacity is added at Tema”, Mr. Fulwood reports.

Still, while Ghana’s gas consumption is expected to keep increasing as electricity production and consumption increases, Fulwood doesn’t see the economic value in the country’s plan to import Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The LNG Terminal facility, already sited at Tema, received its floating regasification unit (FRU), built by Jiangnan Shipbuilding, in January 2021. The LNG FRU is designed for a regasification capacity of around 1.7Million Tonnes Per Annum (1.7MMTPA)tpa and is contracted to operate for approximately 20 years. The FRU will work in conjunction with a dedicated storage vessel (FSU), which is the newbuild 180,000cubic metres Vasant 1, and arrived at Tema port on May 26, 2021, having delivered just one cargo from Darwin in Australia to Yung An in Taiwan in February. The Vasant 1 is on a charter until July 1, 2022, and will then be replaced with an alternative FSU.

Fulwood cautions: “Ghana’s desire to import LNG is very different from other countries who are recent new LNG importers such as Malta, Gibraltar, and Myanmar. All these countries have dedicated power plants linked to the LNG imports so LNG is baseload and the economics can make sense. For Ghana, it is more diversity of supply, which is not a bad thing but can be expensive. The Vasant 1 FSU is on a charter until July 2022, reportedly at a charter rate in the low $20,000 a day– significantly below current market levels, especially given it is a new-build vessel. It is understood the lower rate is linked to the vessel’s speed limitation of 12 knots, making it less attractive on the standard market. The FRU also has to be paid for or chartered and if that was at a similar rate then a total of $50,000 a day would amount to some $18Million/year. Around 6 cargoes/year are needed to get the cost/MMBTU down to $1, which is reasonably cost-effective. At 2 cargoes/year, the effective cost is over $3/MMBTU, which is starting to make LNG look very expensive, once the commodity cost of LNG is included – currently $9 or $10 – and whatever costs are charged for the upgraded port facilities and the pipeline connections to the power plants”.


Advance Military Teams from SADC Arrive Mozambique

Advance teams from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have arrived in Mozambique to support the battle against the Islamist terrorist groups, known locally as “Al-Shabaab”.

Colonel Omar Saranga, the Ministry’s spokesperson dismissed the news that the regional bloc’s full Standby Force, was already in the country.

The advance teams, he explained, are in Maputo and in Palma (a town in the province of Cabo Delgado), to prepare the deployment of the main force.

Saranga confirmed that General Xolani Mankayi, head of South Africa’s 43 Brigade, the rapid intervention unit of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF), will command the SADC Full Standby Force. Mankayi is already in Mozambique, “and he has been received by the Defence Minister and by the Chief of Staff of the Mozambican Armed Forces. He has received a briefing on the situation”, Saranga said. Last August, the energy press speculated that General Manyi had instructed the 43 Brigade to begin an intensive training programme for possible action in Cabo Delgado if President Cyril Ramaphosa decides to intervene. “Questions of command have been outlined in the combined planning”, Saranga offered. “Right now, what is important to say is not who will command or cease to command. The troops will be led by their respective commands, but the chief coordinator is the Republic of Mozambique”.

Islamic insurgents have killed hundreds of people and turned thousands to refugees in towns and villages located in the province and close to the Afungi Peninsula, where the TOTALEnergies operated 13 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum Liquefied Natural Gas project is sited.

In late March 2021, just when TOTALEnergies’ workers returned to site in Afungi to continue construction, Islamic insurgents made their most sweeping attack on the neighboring Palma town.

TOTALEnergies pulled out its workers after that attack and Mozambique has since been looking for a way to permanently root out renewed attacks. Part of the effort was to call on member countries of the Southern African Development Commission (SADC) to provide military assistance.

Saranga waved aside questions regarding combat operations of Rwandan troops who arrived in the week of July 12, 2021. The questions referenced report by the independent newssheet “Carta de Mocambique, that soldiers of the Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) left their base on the Afungi Peninsula to patrol a forested area close to the town of Palma. They reportedly found a terrorist group in the Quionga administrative post, retreating towards the Tanzanian border, engaged them and killed 30 terrorists. Saranga said that questions about Rwandan forces “are operational question and I can’t answer it. It’s the force commander who can answer. The enemy may be watching our actions to see what direction we are going to take”. But he volunteered that the SADC member states who will take part in the Standby Force are South Africa, Tanzania, Angola, and Botswana, “and we are confident that, during the operations, more countries may express an interest in supporting Mozambique”.

“The SADC heads of state summit, held in Maputo on 23 June, approved a mandate for the deployment of the Standby Force”, Col. Saranga told reporters. “The objective was to support the national efforts to fight against terrorism in Cabo Delgado. Following up this mandate, in late June there was a joint planning conference, and this event outlined the next steps that should be taken to deploy the force”.

“What is happening right now is the implementation of this plan”, he continued. “The mandate envisaged that the deployment of the force should happen as from 15 July. So from 15 July to now, activities have been undertaken in order to receive this force, which is rather substantial. Steps are being taken so that it can be received and carry out its work. That means there are advance teams that are working with our troops on the ground to receive the force.


Mozambique Ready to Receive Southern African Troops in Cabo Delgado

Jaime Neto, Mozambique’s minister of National Defence, says that everything is ready to receive the troops of the Southern African Development Commission (SADC), who are expected in the country to help fight terrorism in the gas rich province of Cabo Delgado.

Islamic insurgents have killed hundreds of people and turned thousands to refugees in the towns and villages located in the province and close to the Afungi Peninsula, where the TOTALEnergies operated 13 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum Liquefied Natural Gas project is sited.

In late March 2021, just when TOTALEnergies’ workers returned to site in Afungi to continue construction, Islamic insurgents made their most sweeping attack on the neighbouring Palma town.

“They want to intimidate us”, President Filipe Nyusi, Moazmbique’s head of state, and government said in a speech two weeks after the incident, declaring war. “Following the attack on the town of Palma, the situation in Cabo Delgado has received a lot of national and international attention. All of this attention is legitimate,” the President said. “This town and the adjacent Afungi peninsula are close to the natural gas deposits. It is in this region where the foundations for the exploitation of this resource so important to our economy are being laid. The town serves as the basis for construction works and provides logistical support for works underway in Afungi. So it is that Palma has, in recent years, experienced a rapid evolution in terms of infrastructure, including hotels, banks, and service providers. The Afungi peninsula is also the locus of various other constructions, such as camps and residential areas with access roads and its own aerodrome.”

TOTALEnergies pulled out its workers after that attack and Mozambique has since been looking for a way to permanently root out renewed attacks. Part of the effort was to call on member countries of the Southern African Development Commission (SADC) to provide military assistance.

Mr. Neto, the Defence minister, denies information about the postponement of the arrival of the regional force, due to alleged procedural issues on the part of Mozambique.

“There are already officials in Mozambique who are dealing with the arrival of this SADC intervention force”, the minister explains.

The journal Club of Mozambique quotes Neto as saying that there is no reason, from Mozambique’s point of view not to have the military intervention. “We are prepared”.


Jubilee, TEN Deliver 120MMscf/d of Gas to Ghana’s Atuabo Plant

By John Ankromah, in Tema

Tullow Oil has announced that its oilfield production performance in Ghana “continues to be supported by reliable gas offtake from the Government of Ghana”.

That offtake, from Jubilee field and the TEN cluster of fields, “is regularly averaging between 110 – 130MMscf/d”, the company says in its latest operational statement.

This is a far more upbeat news about gas production than Tullow has had in the last two years.

It suggests that the Ghanaian economy is absorbing an increasing volume of natural gas.  In late 2019, Tullow had lamented that “Gas export from both fields has been limited in 2019 due to low demand from the Ghana National Petroleum Company (GNPC)”, which is the offtaker.

“Discussions on increasing gas offtake are ongoing with GNPC with an increase anticipated towards end of 2019. Sustaining increased levels of gas offtake will reduce the amount of gas being reinjected into the fields, improving oil production over time”, the operator explained.

The gas that Tullow supplies to the Ghanaian government is delivered unprocessed from the two FPSOs (Kwame Krumah for Jubilee and John Atta Mills for TEN) through 12-inchpipelines to the Ghana National Gas Corporation (GNGC) controlled Atuabo plant, which has a processing capacity of 150MMscf/d. Processed gas is evacuated from Atuabo plant through a 20-inch 111km pipeline to (primarily) Volta River Authority’s Thermal Power Stations.


Egypt’s Bus Owners Can Apply for Natural Gas Vehicle Swap

By Toyin Akinosho

Owners of intercity and intracity buses in Egypt will be able to swap their gasoline powered minibuses for natural gas powered ones, in the first phase of the government’s natural gas vehicle swap scheme starting July, 2021.

A key requirement for this phase is that the vehicles must be older than 20 years old. The scheme will initially be rolled out in Cairo, Giza, Qalyubia, Alexandria, Suez, Port Said, and the Red Sea. 

The vehicle swap programme entails private transport companies getting brand new natural gas-powered vehicles for their old mini buses.

The government has also announced that 2,300 Public Buses (owned by governorates and municipalitities) in Cairo and Alexandria will be converted to run on natural gas at a total cost of $77Million (or EGP 1.2Billion), under a joint agreement signed between the ministries of petroleum, local development and military production as well as the public transport authorities of both cities.

Egypt’s plan to displace gasoline and diesel with natural gas, as the country’s default fuel of transportation, had initially scheduled 15,000 minibuses (Egypt’s equivalent of Kenya’s Matatus and Nigeria’s Danfos).

But outside the pulic transport system, the government has now scaled up the planed number of cars to be converted to run on natural gas by 2023, from 250,000 to 450,000 cars.

Egypt’s finance ministry is backing the effort of Taqa Arabia, the country’s largest private sector energy distribution company, in the natural gas conversion scheme. The company, last week, announced the receipt of a $58Million loan from the National Bank of Egypt to help finance the construction of natural gas filling stations. Master Gas, a subsidiary of Taqa Arabia, will use the finance to build 40 new filling stations in a number of governorates, to support the growing shift to natural gas vehicles. Taqa Arabia has indicated it would invest $231Million (or EGP 3.6Billion) in expanding its number of natural gas stations to 180 by 2023. The company says it will spend $51 (EGP 800Million) to construct 40 stations in 2021, $77Million (or EGP 1.2Billion) on 60 stations in 2022 and $102Million (or EGP 1.6Billion) on 80 stations in 2023. Taqa currently operates 23 natural gas stations.


Platform Breaks into the “Nigerian Gas Grid” System

Platform Petroleum has become a gas supplier of some reckoning in the Nigerian domestic gas market.

The marginal field operator currently supplies 22Million standard cubic feet of gas per day (22MMscf/d) to a pipeline operated by the Nigerian Gas Company (NGC).

“All of this is essentially lean gas that comes from the stripping process that is achieved by the PNG gas plant, located on the Egbeoma (marginal) field in the north-western Niger Delta, according to Osa Owieadolor, the company’s outgoing Chief Executive Officer. Platform Petroleum is the operator of that field.

That makes Platform the marginal field operator with the second highest volume of lean gas supplied to the local market. Savannah Petroleum, another marginal field operator, supplies about 100MMscf/d, processed from the Uquo marginal field to the domestic market, mainly to power plants in Calabar and Ikot Abasi, in the east of the country.

The Nigerian domestic gas market is relatively small, with the total volume (supplied to power plants, fertiliser plants and industries) coming to less than 1,500MMscf/d, so two marginal fields supplying 122MMscf/d is a big deal.

“Prior to this process, we were flaring significant volumes”, Owieadolor told Africa Oil+Gas Report. “Now we’re delivering about 1.2MM cf/d of gas to PowerGas for their CNG plant”, he explained. “We have significantly reduced our flaring by over 80%, and we should achieve a total flare-down in our field before the end of the year, because we have also commissioned a compression system that will enable us to do that”.

Platform achieved its first commercial lean gas delivery to the Nigerian Gas Marketing Company (NGMC) a subsidiary of the NGC, in November 2020, following the commissioning of a section of the OB3 gas pipeline.

“Prior to this time, we had executed a Gas Sales and Purchase Agreement with NGMC, that happened over two years ago”, Owieadolor told Africa Oil+Gas Report. “We did same with PowerGas and one or two other Third Party companies. The model has been willing buyer-willing seller”.

Oweiadolor clarified that Platform is not the current operator of the PNG Gas Processing Plant, “but we are an investor there and our involvement is more like an oversight function at the board level. But outside of that, because of the relationship on the board level, we also provide some bit of support based on our experience. That’s how it relates to the operatorship of the plant”.

 


BP Starts Up 600MMscf/d Field for Egypt’s Domestic Gas Market

British supermajor BP has commissioned the Raven gas field in Egypt’s West Nile Delta, producing 600Million standard cubic feet per day (600MMscf/d) into the country’s natural gas grid for a start.

The field produces into a new onshore processing facility, alongside the existing West Nile Delta onshore processing plant.

At its peak, Raven has the potential to produce 900MMsscf/d and 30,000 barrels per day of condensate.

 

 

Raven is the third of three projects in BP’s West Nile Delta (WND) development off the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. It follows the Taurus/Libra and Giza/Fayoum projects, which started production in 2017 and 2019 respectively.

The approximately $9Billion WND development includes five gas fields across the North Alexandria and West Mediterranean Deepwater offshore concession blocks in the Mediterranean Sea. BP and its partners, working with the Ministry of Petroleum, have developed the WND in three stages.

 Egypt is Africa’s most absorptive market for natural gas, consuming over 6Billion standard cubic feet per day (6Bscf/d), most of it in its 55,000MW electricity generation market.

Bernard Looney, BP’s chief executive, says that the WNDprojects “will make an important contribution to meeting Egypt’s growing energy needs by providing a cost-competitive and resilient gas supply from the country’s own resources.” 


TOTAL Declares Force Majeure on Mozambique LNG Project

Macson Obojemoinmien, in Lagos

French major TOTAL has declared a Force Majeure on the 12.8Million Metric Tonne Per Annum (12.8MMTA) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project in Afungi, in Mozambique’s north easternmost province of Cabo Delgado.

“Considering the evolution of the security situation in the north of the Cabo Delgado province in Mozambique, TOTAL confirms the withdrawal of all Mozambique LNG project personnel from the Afungi site”, the company says in a brifing released Monday, April 26, 2021. “This situation leads TOTAL, as operator of Mozambique LNG project, to declare force majeure”, the company explains.

The Cabo Delgado province has suffered debilitating attacks by Islamic insurgents. The attacks have led to deaths of dozens of people and s displacements of thousands more.

“TOTAL expresses its solidarity with the government and people of Mozambique and wishes that the actions carried out by the government of Mozambique and its regional and international partners will enable the restoration of security and stability in Cabo Delgado province in a sustained manner”, the company says.

“TOTAL E&P Mozambique Area 1 Limitada, a wholly owned subsidiary of Total SE, operates Mozambique LNG with a 26.5% participating interest alongside ENH Rovuma Área Um, S.A. (15%), Mitsui E&P Mozambique Area1 Limited (20%), ONGC Videsh Rovuma Limited (10%), Beas Rovuma Energy Mozambique Limited (10%), BPRL Ventures Mozambique B.V. (10%), and PTTEP Mozambique Area 1 Limited (8.5%)”.

 


We Must Support Mozambique Overcome Terrorist Forces, Protect Lives, and Restore Hope 

By NJ Ayuk, njayuk.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“You may kill me with your hatefulness, but still, like air, I’ll rise”. Maya Angelou was so right. These profound words do ring true today when we look at the recent coward attacks by terrorists against defenseless Mozambicans. There’s so much at stake in Mozambique, where the separatist militia known as Haul Sunnah Wa-Jamo (ASWJ) has stepped up its campaign to seize territory in Cabo Delgado, the country’s northernmost province.

On March 24, 2021, more than 100 ASWJ fighters attacked Palma, a town in Cabo Delgado, from three sides. Mozambique’s Defense and Security Forces, known locally as SDS, moved in quickly and mounted a counter-attack the next day, but they were not able to regain control immediately.

They also did not arrive in time to prevent Palma’s residents from violence and death. As of the time of this writing, the number of exact casualties is still unknown, but credible sources have reported that there are dead bodies on the streets of the town — and that some of the corpses have been beheaded.

High-Stakes Conflict

Mozambique’s government has strong incentives to push back against ASWJ, which has been staging deadly attacks in Cabo Delgado since 2017.

From a diplomatic and political standpoint, it is keen to preserve the territorial integrity of the country and quash the threat to the central government’s authority. (This is a sensitive issue, since many residents of Cabo Delgado feel marginalized and ignored by the government, even if they don’t view ASWJ as a viable alternative.)

From a geopolitical standpoint, it is intent on prevailing against a group that is serving as the local arm of the Islamic State, also known as Daesh. It’s not interested in letting the country become a haven for terrorism. And yes, this is terrorism – not fighting, not unrest, but terror. Sometimes we in the energy industry have to call it for what it is, no matter how careful we may want to be.

Mozambican leaders understand very well that launching a counterinsurgency push in Cabo Delgado against these extremists will not just defeat the tiny and desperate bands of armed terrorist. Instead, if experience in the rest of the world is any guide, it could transform these zeros into heroes.  It will embolden them and strengthen their resolve. And it will enable them to excel in their favorite role, that of persecuted martyr. We must win them over with carrots and sticks and transform communities. Pretty smart thinking. They want to do this right and they want results and still keep the country together. We should support them.

From an economic standpoint, it is determined to eliminate obstacles to the development of the huge natural gas fields that lie off the coast of Cabo Delgado. These gas reserves have already attracted more than $50Billion worth of investment commitments from consortia led by major international oil companies (IOCs) such as France’s TOTAL, Italy’s ENI, and U.S.-based ExxonMobil. TOTAL and its partners have already devoted a great deal of time, effort, and money to the establishment of an onshore base and liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant on the Afungi Peninsula.

This complex, which is just a few kilometers away from Palma, will support upstream development work at the offshore block known as Area 1. It isn’t yet complete, though. If it can’t be finished, TOTAL will have a hard time proceeding with its $20Billion Mozambique LNG project — and ENI and ExxonMobil will have a hard time following suit with their own South Coral LNG and Rovuma LNG projects. This is a real threat, given that TOTAL had to suspend work and evacuate workers from the construction site in January, following a series of attacks near Palma in December. Indeed, it’s worth noting that the attack on Palma occurred shortly after reports emerged that TOTAL was preparing to bring workers back before the end of March.

Terrorism and Human Suffering

But the threat to Mozambique isn’t just about gas. It isn’t just about money or security or power or territorial integrity.

It’s also about people. Human beings.

The conflict in Cabo Delgado is wrecking people’s lives on a vast scale. More than 700,000 people have already fled their homes in northern Mozambique, and the count is still rising. UNHCR, the United Nations’ refugee agency, says the number could top 1 Million by the middle of the year if the international community does not take steps to end the conflict.

Thanks to the support and encouragement from President Filipe Nyusi, his government and the governor of Cabo Delgado. I went to Cabo Delgado. The President and Mozambican officials ensured my delegation had complete and unfettered access to the region. Even during the attacks, I still had a team in Cabo Delgado. I’ve seen this suffering firsthand. I paid a visit to a refugee camp in the region. I talked to people who have been hurt, who have seen their family members slaughtered by ASWJ fighters. I met children, some of them as young as 8 or 9 years old, who have been assaulted by terrorists.

And these traumatized souls are living in makeshift, flimsy facilities that are basically made of leaves!

I’m heartbroken and outraged. I’d like to say I’m hopeful that things will change soon, but the UNHCR’s forecast of an increase in the number of refugees over the next few months gives me pause. (It’s also sobering to hear that the UNHCR has only been able to raise 5% of the $254Million in funding that it sought for its work in Mozambique last November.)

Cabo Delgado Needs More Than Security

I’m not trying to give the impression that nothing is being done for Cabo Delgado and its people. That would not be fair or accurate.

With respect to security, Maputo has pledged to work with TOTAL to establish a safe zone around the gas complex on the Afungi Peninsula. It will have to step up its efforts on this front, given that the attack on Palma occurred inside the perimeter of the designated zone, but it is seeking help. Also, earlier this month, Mozambique’s government invited U.S. military advisors and special forces into the country to deliver counter-terrorism training. It has also accepted an offer from Portugal, its former colonial ruler, to provide additional training for the Mozambican armed forces.

But this isn’t going to be enough.

Even though Mozambique’s government is committed to doing everything it can to bring real peace and stability to Cabo Delgado, it needs more support than it is currently getting. It will need ongoing support from the international community — not just in response to the most recent attacks, but for the long haul.

If it doesn’t get that, ASWJ will continue to wreak havoc and force people out of their homes, making terrorism the biggest cause of poverty in Mozambique. If there isn’t enough help — and if large-scale projects like Mozambique LNG no longer are an option to create jobs and grow the economy — the country will sink further into despair. Cabo Delgado’s people will feel even more marginalized. The country’s natural environment will continue to suffer damage, and there will be no one available to help.

Doing More — And Doing Better

So now more than ever, we have to find ways to combat terror in Cabo Delgado.

There has been talk about negotiations and giving amnesty to ASWJ members who give up the fight. And as I’ve already mentioned, there are plans to provide training and advisory services to Mozambique’s armed forces.

But we have to do more, and we have to do better — not just the international community, but all of us, as individuals and business leaders.

We can start by denouncing the evil that we’re seeing in Mozambique. We must condemn the assaults and the crimes that are being committed by the terrorists who seek to gain control of Cabo Delgado. We can’t just remain quiet, as if nothing consequential is happening there. We must give President Nyusi the necessary support and backing to fix this.

Right now, more than ever, the country needs our support and our voices, and our involvement. “Leaving behind nights of terror and fear, I rise. Into a daybreak that’s wondrously clear, I rise”. Concluded Maya Angelou. Energy workers, Palma, Cabo Delgado and Mozambique will rise out of this like the African sun rises every day.

NJ Ayuk is chairman of the African Energy Chamber.

 

 


America Joins the Fight Against the Jihadists Obstructing Mozambique’s LNG Project

With $4Billion loan committed by the US Exim Bank to the TOTAL led LNG project in Mozambique, and ExxonMobil’s involvement in a separate project, it had long been anticipated that the US would show serious interest in the violent assault of the Islamist insurgents close to sites of the proposed LNG plants in the north of the country.

Now the US Special Operations Forces have begun training Mozambican marines as part of efforts to combat the jihadists’ insurgency.

The U.S. Embassy in Mozambique announced the two-month training programme, called Joint Combined Exchange Training, describing it as an initiative which “reflects a new U.S. commitment against the jihadist organization Ansar al-Sunnah, which is active in the gas-rich Cabo Delgado province”.

On March 11, 2021, Washington officially added Ansar al-Sunnah to its list of terrorist organizations. The U.S. State Department said the insurgent group, which it renamed ISIS Mozambique, is closely linked to the global leadership of the Islamic State.

The embassy statement says that the “United States prioritizes the respect for human rights, protection of civilians, and engagement with civil society in all security assistance. The United States is committed to supporting Mozambique with a multifaceted and holistic approach to counter and prevent the spread of terrorism and violent extremism.  This approach addresses socioeconomic development issues as well as the security situation.  Civilian protection, human rights, and community engagement are central to U.S. cooperation and are foundational to effectively counter the Islamic State in Mozambique”.

Violence in Cabo Delgado has, since 2017, resulted in 2,500 deaths and forced 670,000 people to flee their homes. According to the United Nations, about 1.3 million people need humanitarian assistance.

 

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